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Hepatitis B
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Hepatitis B - hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Diseases & Conditions A-Z

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INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Viral Illnesses

Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For some people, the infection becomes chronic, leading to liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis — a condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver.

The hepatitis B virus is transmitted in the blood and body fluids of someone who is infected — the same way the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, spreads. Yet hepatitis B is nearly 100 times as infectious as HIV.

You're especially at risk if you're an intravenous (IV) drug user who shares needles or other paraphernalia, have unprotected sexual contact with an infected partner, or were born in or travel to parts of the world where hepatitis B is widespread. In addition, women with HBV can pass the infection to their babies during childbirth.

Most people infected as adults recover fully from hepatitis B, even if their signs and symptoms are severe. Infants and children are much more likely to develop a chronic infection.

Although no cure exists for hepatitis B, a vaccine can prevent the disease. If you're already infected, taking certain precautions can help prevent HBV from spreading to others.

Definition   

The term "hepatitis" refers to syndromes or diseases causing liver inflammation, including inflammation due to viruses and chronic alcohol abuse. Viruses causing hepatitis include Hepatitis A, B, C, E and the delta factor. Each virus causes a distinct syndrome, though they share some symptoms and consequences.

Most people who become infected with hepatitis B get rid of the virus within 6 months. A short infection is known as an "acute" case of hepatitis B.

Approximately 10% of people infected with the hepatitis B virus develop a chronic, life-long infection. People with chronic infection may have symptoms, but many of these patients never develop symptoms. These patients are sometimes referred to as "carriers" and can spread the disease to others. Having chronic hepatitis B increases your chance of permanent liver damage, including cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors   

Hepatitis B is transmitted via blood and other body fluids. Infection can occur through:

  • Contact with blood in healthcare settings -- this puts physicians, nurses, dentists, and other healthcare personnel at risk
  • Unsafe sex with an infected person
  • Blood transfusions
  • Sharing needles during drug use
  • Receiving a tattoo or acupuncture with contaminated instruments
  • Birth -- an infected mother can transmit the virus to the baby during delivery or shortly thereafter

People who are at higher risk, including people who live with someone with hepatitis B and healthcare workers, should get the hepatitis B vaccine.

In acute hepatitis, it takes about 1 to 6 months from the time of infection until the disease manifests itself. Early symptoms may include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, and muscle and joint aches. Jaundice, together with dark urine and light stools, follows. About 1 percent of patients infected with hepatitis B die due to liver damage in this early stage.

The risk of becoming chronically infected depends on the age at the time of infection. More than 90% of newborns, about 50% of children, and less than 5% of adults infected with hepatitis B develop chronic hepatitis.

Most damage from hepatitis B virus is caused by the body's response to the infection. The body's immune response against the infected liver cells (hepatocytes) damages the cells, causing liver inflammation (hepatitis). As a result, liver enzymes (transaminases) leak out of the liver into the blood, causing transaminase blood levels to be elevated. The virus impairs the liver's ability to produce the clotting factor prothrombin, increasing the time required for blood clot formation (prothrombin time).

Liver damage also impairs the body's ability to rid itself of bilirubin (a breakdown product of old red blood cells), causing jaundice (yellow discoloration of the eyes and body) and dark urine.

Hepatitis B Diet

Let's start with most simple part of this program: Hepatitis B diet. When it comes to diet, it is very important to avoid eating  Toxins  and   Foods that Kill. Please follow those links and learn what are The Toxins I am talking about and what are those  " Foods that Kill". Now, important part of your diet should also be Water Cure.  Please, become familiar with  Water Cure. Your Diet should contain: Foods That Heal, Vegetable juicesFats that HealUnrefined Sea Salt. Also, try to understand food tolerance. You can not find the right Hepatitis B diet, unless you fully understand and learn about food tolerance.

Take some time to implement and learn all what you have read here, and then continue reading further.

HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV)

Hepatitis B virus is a DNA virus; a DANE particle (42 nm) composed of an inner core and lipoprotein envelope. It is found in greatest concentration in liver and less in blood. The INNER CORE is a 27 nm particle that includes DNA, DNA polymerase, and other antigenic components. It is found only in the hepatocyte nucleus. The core has two antigenic components: HBcAg (core antigen) and HBeAg ("e" antigen is associated with DNA polymerase). A LIPOPROTEIN ENVELOPE is synthesized in the liver cell cytoplasm. The envelope is antigenic, produced in excess, and appears in blood as HBsAg (a.k.a. AUSTRALIA ANTIGEN). HBeAg is NOT the envelope protein.

Transmission

Transmission occurs via the inoculation of blood, blood products or other body fluids ( i.e., semen). High risk groups include medical personnel, male homosexuals, and dialysis patients. The disease symptoms follow a long incubation period and presents with an insidious onset. The symptoms last from 2-12 weeks although subclinical infections can occur. 10% of the cases go on to a chronic state. In addition, 0.1-1% of the U.S. population are asymptomatic carriers of HBV and 8-10% are AB positive.

Prophylaxis

Prophylaxis can be achieved by increasing health, better diet, cleansing, avoiding sugar and other industrially processed foods.

NON-A/NON-B HEPATITIS (NANB)

This disease is probably two different conditions caused by two different viruses (implied by patterns of incubation and symptoms). The causative agent is possibly a retrovirus. 90% of post-transfusion hepatitis cases are due to NANB. HBV is less common since blood screening is able to detect contaminated blood. NANB is responsible for about 20-30% of sporadic cases of hepatitis. Endemic and epidemic NANB can occur. Symptoms follow a long incubation period (2-26 wk) and present with an insidious onset. Most cases are without jaundice (anicteric). There is a strong predilection for chronicity and a carrier state does exist although there is no current means for its identification.

Transmission

The transmission is similar to HBV and fecal-oral spread has not been documented. While all forms of hepatitis show an increase in SGPT (alanine amino transferase) and SGOT, Acute NANB classically produces a pattern of fluctuating enzyme elevation, i.e., remissions and exacerbations.

DELTA AGENT

The newest discovery in the area of viral hepatitis. Delta is an RNA virus encapsulated in a coat of hepatitis B surface antigen. An ongoing infection of HBV is required before Delta agent is capable of replication. It is found only in blood which is HBsAg+.

HBV infection and HBsAg synthesis are necessary for Delta replication and expression.

Delta can coinfect with HBV, or superinfect HBV carrier.

The host ability to clear HBV determines the duration of Delta infection.

It is HBV infection, not HBV replication that provides environment conducive to Delta.

The majority of patients with chronic Delta infection have circulating anti-HBe.

Transmission

The transmission similar to HBV found in chronic carriers or in persons infected simultaneously with HBsAg and Delta.

PATHOLOGY OF VIRAL HEPATITIS:

ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS: The pathologic changes are the same for Hepatitis A; B; and C. There is hepatocyte injury with swelling also called "ballooning" degeneration), necrosis with formation of Acidophil (Councilman) bodies , disarray of the hepatic lobules, Kupfer cell hyperplasia, and inflammatory cells in portal areas (lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils).

This  Hepatitis B Prevention and/or Curing Protocol is for people who are ready to take the full responsibility for their own health.

"The person who says it cannot be done should not interrupt the person doing it." Chinese Proverb.

The protocol incorporates lifestyle change, and implements healthy diet, body cleansing, exercises and different traditional and natural therapies. Protocol contains links to other pages that give detail explanation for each part of this program. Please, follow the links, to fully understand all the words. Remember: There is always something that can be done! The first thing to do is to change your mood. If you are depressed, if you are unhappy, you can not be healthy. Advice: start with the Laughing cure!

Laughing provides us with the natural inner massage, and through change of mood it can account for up to 30% of cure!

Symptoms   

  • Fatigue, malaise, joint aches, and low-grade fever
  • Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain
  • Jaundice and dark urine due to increased bilirubin

Signs and tests   

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) -- this represents the first viral marker present in blood tests after the patient is infected. It usually disappears from the blood in 1-2 months.
  • Hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc) -- this is usually detected within 1-2 weeks of the appearance of hepatitis B surface antigen.
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody (Anti-HBs) -- this is found both in those who have been immunized and those who have recovered from hepatitis infection.
  • Both hepatitis B surface antibody and core antibody persist indefinitely in the blood of patients who have recovered from hepatitis B.
  • Liver enzyme (transaminase) blood levels may be elevated due to liver damage.
  • Albumin levels may be low and prothrombin time may be prolonged due to severe liver failure.

 Hepatitis B > 1 > 2 > 3 > 4

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This information is provided for general medical education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical judgment of a physician relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient's medical condition.
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Last Modified : 03/15/08 01:02 AM