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Ayurvedic Herbs / Thai Herbs - Medicinal Plants - P

Ayurvedic Herbs A-Z

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Ayurvedic Medicine

Basics

There are numerous medicinal plants in current use in Thailand. Ayurvedic medicine and Thai traditional medicine, each finding many uses and deserving to be exhibited to the enthusiasts who wish to know about the characteristics of its stem, flower, fruit together with the research work undertaken, it is impossible to exhibit all, or even the majority, of them. For this reason some common medicinal plants which received research attention both locally and internationally have been selected. In addition, some which have so far attracted little attention from researchers have also been included owing to their recognition in Ayurvedic Medicine and traditional medicine in Thailand as well as some Asian countries.

The information has been searched from the literature, selected and edited in order to be presented in this site, which will familiarize the reader with general characters of such plants. No botanical details are given owing to the nature of this work and also to limited space. Sketches of the plants, however, are given to enable the reader to recognize them. It should be noted that all Thai, Sanskrit, Latin and English common names of the plants appearing in this site are transliterated into English with the sound in mind, and not according to the official rules. In addition, owing to the limited space the traditional usage of each plant is meant to be representative, and by no means comprehensive.

Ayurveda Herbs - Thai Herbs Common Name 
     
Ayurvedic Herbs English Name  Ayurvedic Herbs Latin/Scientific Name Ayurvedic Herbs Sanskrit Name

 

 P    English Name        

 

Papaya

  Pearl Oyster Shell Calx
 

Peppermint

 

Persian Rose

 

Pistachio

 

Pinang Palm

 

Pomegranate

 

Pongam Oil Tree

 

Pot-Marigold

 

Prickly-Chaff Flower

  Proccesd Coral
  Processed Pearl
 

Pummelo

 

Puncture Vine

 

Purging Cassia

 

Purple Fleabane

   
   

 

 P    Latin Name           
 

Papaver rhoeas

 

Parmelia perlata

 

Peucedanum graveolens

 

Phoenix dactylifera

 

Phyllanthus amarus

 

Picrorhiza kurroa

 

Pinus longifolia

 

Pinus roxburghii

 

Piper longum

 

Piper nigrum

 

Pistacia vera

 

Plumbago zeylanica

 

Pongamia glabra

 

Pongamia pinnata

 

Prunus amygdalus

 

Psoralea corylifolia

 

Pterocarpus marsupium

 

Punica granatum

 

Pyrus malus

   
   

 

 P      Sanskrit Name   
 

Pahari Pudina

 

Palankasha

 

Palasa

 

Paparaminta

 

Parasigaya

 

Parasika yavani

 

Parnasa

 

Pasanabheda

 

Pathya

 

Patrapuspha

 

Phenila

 

Pippali

 

Pitasara

 

Pitashalaka

 

Poogiphalam

 

Prativisha

 

Pudina

 

Puga

 

Punarnava

 

Putiha

 

Putikaranja

   
   

 

 

Latin Name:

Papaver rhoeas

English Names:

Red Poppy, Corn Poppy

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Rakta-posta, Rakta Khakasa

 

 

An erect, branched, very variable annual.

The petals are reported to contain a dark red pigment, namely mecocyanin chloride and another cyanidin derivative. Later investigations have revealed the presence of cyanidin-B and pelargonidin-C in the flowers. An alkaloid rhoeadine is present in all parts of the plant including roots, leaves, flowers and capsules. The capsules contain also the alkaloids morphine, thebaine and narcotine, and meconic acid. Protopine and coptisine, besides a number of other phenolic and nonphenolic, crystalline and amorphous bases have been reported in the roots and aerial parts.

The petals are mucilaginous and bitter. They are expectorant and have been used for cough or hoarseness; they also possess sedative and pain relieving properties. The fresh petals are used for the preparation of galenicals. Syrup or tincture made out of petals is used for coloring medicines and food materials to which they impart a red color and a bitter flavor. The aqueous extracts of the plant exhibit antibiotic activity.

 

Latin Name:

Parmelia perlata

English Name:

Stone Flowers

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Shaileyam, Shilapushpa

 

 

Parmelia perlata is a lichen growing in rosettes or irregularly spreading over the substratum giving the appearance of a flower - hence the name.

It is mainly composed of fungal mycelia which forms a network enclosing algal cells or gonidia. The plant is astringent, bitter, acrid, cooling, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. It is useful in sores, boils, inflammations, seminal weakness and amenorrhea.

 

Latin Name:

Phoenix dactylifera

English Name:

Dates

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Kharjura

 

 

A tall tree. The fruit is an oblong berry that is reddish or yellowish brown when ripe.

Dates are considered demulcent, expectorant and laxative and are used in respiratory diseases and fever. They are rich in sugars.

 

Latin Names:

Phyllanthus amarus

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Bhumyaamalaki

 

 

A herb with a rigid, short, prostrate stem.

Amariin, a novel hydrolysable tannin together with geraniin, corilagin, 1,6-digalloyl-glucopyranoside as well as a rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the plant.

The plant is often used in the traditional system of medicine for a variety of ailments including flu, dropsy, diabetes, jaundice, asthma, bronchial infections, and diseases of the liver. In the ayurvedic system of medicine it is used in problems of the stomach, genitourinary system, liver, and kidney.

 

 

Latin Name:

Picrorhiza kurroa

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Katuka, Kutki

 

 

It is a perennial herb with elongate, stout and creeping rootstock found in the alpine regions. The plant is mainly used as the therapy for liver and lung diseases. The plant exhibits potent immunostimulant activity and is considered a immunomodulatory agent. The phenolic glycoside, androsin isolated from the plant, is reported to be as active compound which prevents allergies and platelet activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction in guinea pigs in vitro. It also has anti-inflammatory activity.

 

Latin Names:

Pinus roxburghii, P. longifolia

English Name:

Chir Pine

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Sarala, Shrivasa

 

 

A tall tree, with spreading branches covered with a dark gray bark that is deeply fissured and rough.

The turpentine oil obtained from the chir pine is valued in medicine as a rubefacient in various rheumatic affections, such as lumbago, arthritis, and neuralgia. The oil is also an ingredient in many ointments, liniments and lotions for treating minor aches and pains as well as colds when applied externally.

 

Latin Name:

Piper longum

English Name:

Indian Long Pepper

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Kana, Magadhi, Pippali, Ushana

 

 

Piper longum is a slender, aromatic, climber with perennial woody roots, creeping and jointed stems, and fleshy fruits embedded in the spikes.

Its principal constituents are piperine and piplartine The fruits are used for diseases of the respiratory tract, viz. cough, bronchitis, asthma, etc.; as counter-irritant and analgesic when applied locally for muscular pains and inflammation and as general tonic and hematinic. It is known to enhance the bio-availability of food and drugs as well as being a carminative.

It is used in coughs, coryza, asthma, hoarseness of voice, bronchitis, etc.

 

Latin Name:

Piper nigrum

English Name:

Black Pepper

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Krishna, Vellaja, Maricha

 

 

Piper nigrum is a climbing perennial shrub, rooting at the stem nodes with ovoid or globose fruits.

Its principal constituents are piperine, chavicine, piperidine and piperettine. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in weakness following fevers, coma, etc., as a stomachic in cholera, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, Diarrhea and various other gastrointestinal ailments. It has bacterio static, fungi static, anti-inflammatory and rubefacient properties.

 

Latin Name:

Pistacia vera

English Name:

Pistachio

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Mukulaka

 

 

A small deciduous tree, which has fruits with a grayish white, bony, keeled nut-shell, which encloses light yellow to deep green edible kernels with a reddish coat.

The kernels are considered to be digestive, sedative and tonic and contain a melting fatty oil.

 

Latin Name:

Plumbago zeylanica

English Name:

White Leadwort

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Chitraka

 

 

A perennial, sub-scandent shrub found wild.

The root bark of P. zeylanica contains plumbagin (distributed in most of the secondary cortex and medullary ray cells), free glucose and fructose, and the enzymes protease and invertase.

It is a powerful irritant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic that is useful in rheumatism.

 

Latin Names:

Pongamia glabra, Pongamia pinnata

English Names:

Pongam Oil Tree, Indian Beech

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Karanja

 

It is a medium-sized glabrous tree with single seeded, compressed and woody pods. Karanjin in the seed oil has antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.

 

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Praval bhasma

English Name:

Coral Calx

 

 

It is a rich, natural source of calcium, and, due to appropriate ayurvedic processing, has the advantage of easy absorption in the intestine.

 

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Praval pishti

English Name:

Processed Coral

 

 

It is prepared from the coral of Corallium rubrum. It is a tonic for the heart and brain and useful in melancholia, palpitation and cough.

 

 

Latin Name:

Prunus amygdalus

English Name:

Almond

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Vatadha

 

 

Prunus amygdalus is a tree with minutely serrate leaves.

It is known for its astringent effect. It has a globulin called amandin. It contains folic acid, alpha tocopherol and zinc, which are useful in skin disorders. In Ayurveda, Almond kernels are considered demulcent, lithontriptic and diuretic as well as being a nervine tonic.

It is reported to improve brain functions.

 

Latin Name:

Psoralea corylifolia

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Bakuchi, Babchi

 

 

It is an erect annual herb with broadly-elliptic leaves, yellow or bluish purple flowers and small pods with one seed, which is adhering to the pericarp. Psoralen and isopsoralen are the active principles of the drug. Bavachinin -A a flavanone isolated from the fruits revealed marked anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic properties.

 

Latin Name:

Pterocarpus marsupium

English Name:

Indian Kino Tree

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Bijaka

 

 

Pterocarpus marsupium is a large deciduous tree.

Its principal constituents are liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin. An aqueous infusion of the wood is used in diabetes. It has been found to reduced the glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and improve insulin and pro-insulin levels. It is effective in beta cell regeneration and has also been found to have a hypocholesteremic effect.

 

Latin Name:

Pterocarpus santalinus

English Names:

Red sanders, Red sandal wood

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Rakthachandana

 

 

It is a small to medium-sized, deciduous tree, restricted to parts of South India. The bark is blackish-brown, deeply cleft into rectangular plates, and exuding a deep red juice when cut. The wood contains 16 per cent of a red coloring matter santalin [santalic acid] possessing a quinonoid structure. Santalin yields a blood red solution with alcohol, yellow with ether and violet with ammonia and caustic alkalis. It has cooling properties and mitigates thirst.

 

Latin Name:

Punica granatum

English Name:

Pomegranate

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Dadima

 

 

A shrub or small tree with edible fruits.

The rind contains tannins and ursolic acid. Extracts of the fruit rind and root bark showed antibacterial activity. It is valued as an astringent in cases of Diarrhea and dysentery.

 

Latin Name:

Pyrus malus

English Names:

Crab Apple, Cultivated Apple

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Seva

 

 

A low round-crowned tree. The composition of the apple fruit varies with variety, climatic conditions during the growing season, and the stage of maturity.

It is a rich source of various vitamins, trace elements, amino acids and flavanoids. Malic acid is the principal acid (90-95% of the total acids) of the fruit. It has tonic, keratolytic and antiseptic properties. The astringent principles of apple include tannins, tannin derivatives and coloring materials (flavones). Apple is one of the fruits with low antigen content diet and is useful in the management of immunomediated diseases such as mixed cryoglobulinemia and Ig A neuropathy. Apple fruits contain a ▀-glycol, octane-1, 3-diol which is an antifungal constituent. It reduces skin inflammation and helps in removing dead skin fragments.

 

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