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Ayurvedic Herbs / Thai Herbs - Medicinal Plants - C

Ayurvedic Herbs A-Z

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Ayurvedic Medicine

Basics

There are numerous medicinal plants in current use in Thailand. Ayurvedic medicine and Thai traditional medicine, each finding many uses and deserving to be exhibited to the enthusiasts who wish to know about the characteristics of its stem, flower, fruit together with the research work undertaken, it is impossible to exhibit all, or even the majority, of them. For this reason some common medicinal plants which received research attention both locally and internationally have been selected. In addition, some which have so far attracted little attention from researchers have also been included owing to their recognition in Ayurvedic Medicine and traditional medicine in Thailand as well as some Asian countries.

The information has been searched from the literature, selected and edited in order to be presented in this site, which will familiarize the reader with general characters of such plants. No botanical details are given owing to the nature of this work and also to limited space. Sketches of the plants, however, are given to enable the reader to recognize them. It should be noted that all Thai, Sanskrit, Latin and English common names of the plants appearing in this site are transliterated into English with the sound in mind, and not according to the official rules. In addition, owing to the limited space the traditional usage of each plant is meant to be representative, and by no means comprehensive.

Ayurveda Herbs - Thai Herbs Common Name   C
  • Calamus
  • Calcium Sulfate
  • Calendula
  • California barberry
  • California buchthorn
  • Californian Poppy
  • Camomile
  • Canada root
  • Canada tea
  • Candleberry
  • Candleberry myrtle
  • Caner root
  • Cang er zi
  • Canker root
  • Cankerwort
  • Cannabis
  • Canoe birch
  • Cape Jasmine Fruit
  • Capillaris
  • Capsicum
  • Caraway
  • Cardamon
  • Cardin
  • Carob
  • Carosella
  • Carpenter's herb
  • Carpenters Square
  • Carrageenan
  • Carragheen
  • Carum
  • Caryophyllus
  • Cascara
  • Cascara sagrada
  • Case wort
  • Cassia
  • Cassia seed
  • Castor Oil Plant
  • Cat's Claw
  • Cat's Foot
  • Catchfly
  • Catchweed
  • Catmint
  • catnep
  • Catnip
  • Catrup
  • Catswort
  • Cayenne
  • Celandine
  • Celery
  • Celery Seeds
  • Centaury
  • Century
  • Chaenomeles fruit
  • Chai hu
  • chakra marda
  • Chakunda
  • Chandana
  • Changeri
  • Chaste Berry
  • Chaste tree
  • Chasteberry
  • Che qian zi
  • Cheat
  • Checkerberry
  • Cheese rennet
  • Chelidonium
  • Cherry birch
  • Chervil
  • Chi-hsueh Ts'ao
  • Chicken's toes
  • Chickweed
  • Chicory
  • Chikana
  • Chilean Clover
  • Chili pepper
  • Chillies
  • China root
  • Chinese anise
  • Chinese black cohosh
  • Chinese catnip
  • Chinese chives
  • Chinese ephedra
  • Chinese figwort
  • Chinese foxglove
  • Chinese gentian
  • Chinese ginseng
  • Chinese mint
  • Chinese Parsley
  • Chinese pink flower
  • Chinese quince
  • Chinese Rhubarb
  • Chinese skullcap
  • Chink
  • Chirayata
  • Chirchira
  • Chiribenda
  • Chitimutti
  • Chitra
  • Chitrak
  • Chittem bark
  • Chives
  • Chota-chand
  • Chota-gokhru
  • Choti Katheri
  • Chrysanthemum flowers
  • Chuan bei mu
  • Chukka
  • Chukku
  • Church steeples
  • Ci wu ju
  • Cilantro
  • Cimicifuga
  • Cinnamon
  • Cinnamon twig
  • Cinnamon wood
  • Cinquefoil
  • Clabber grass
  • Cleaver grass
  • Cleavers
  • Cleaverwort
  • Clematis root
  • Clematis stem
  • Clivers
  • Cloister pepper
  • Clotbur
  • Cloudberry
  • Clove
  • Clovos
  • Coachweed
  • Coakum
  • Cobra's Saffron
  • Cocash weed
  • Cocklebur
  • Cocklebur fruit
  • Cockspur pepper
  • Cocowort
  • Coix
  • Cola
  • Colchicum
  • Colic Root
  • Collard
  • Coltsfoot
  • Comfrey
  • Common alchemil
  • Common alkanet
  • Common arnica
  • Common basil
  • Common blue violet
  • Common buckthorn
  • Common bugloss
  • Common centaury
  • common evening primrose
  • Common garden thyme
  • Common hop
  • Common Lady's Mantle
  • Common lavender
  • Common mugwort
  • Common nettle
  • Common parsley
  • Common plantain
  • Common rue
  • Common stinging nettle
  • Common tansy
  • Common Thyme
  • Condurango
  • Cong Bai
  • Consumptive's weed
  • Conval lily
  • Convallaria
  • Coptis
  • Coral root
  • Coriander
  • Corn
  • Corn Silk
  • Corncob plant
  • Costus
  • Cottonweed
  • Couchgrass
  • Cough weed
  • Coughroot
  • Coughwort
  • Country Mallow
  • Countryman's treacle
  • Cow bezoar
  • Cow cabbage
  • Cow gallstone
  • Cow grass
  • Cow's lungwort
  • Cowhage plant
  • Cowitch
  • Cramp Bark
  • Crampweed
  • Cranberry
  • Crawley
  • Creeping bugle
  • Crosswort
  • Crowberry
  • Culvers Physic
  • Culvers Root
  • Curacao aloe
  • Curcuma
  • Curdwort
  • Cure-all
  • Curled Dock
  • Curled mint
  • Curly Dock
  • Cutch
  • Cutweed
Ayurvedic Herbs  English Name   C

 

Ayurvedic Herbs Latin/Scientific Name  C

 

Ayurvedic Herbs Sanskrit Name  C

 

Latin Names:

Caesalpinia digyna, Caesalpinia bonducella

English Name:

Teri Pods

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Udakiryaka, Putikaranja

A large, scandent, prickly shrub or climber.

The plant is used for curing senile pruritis with excellent result. The drug is also reported to exhibit anti-fatigue effect in rats. The roots have marked astringent and antipyretic properties.

They yield bergenin (vakerin).

Latin Name:

Calendula officinalis

English Name:

Calendula

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Zergul

An aromatic, erect, annual herb, cultivated in India.

The ligulate florets constitute the drug which is reported to possess stimulant, bitter, tonic, sudorific, febrifuge, carminative, anti-emetic and anthelmintic properties. The flowers contain calenduline, and oleanolic acid glycoside and sterol glycosides. They also contain a- and ▀-amyrin, taraxasterol, y - taraxasterol, lupeol, brein, faradiol, arnidiol, erythrodiol, calenduladiol, coflodiol (ursadiol) and manilladiol.

Latin Name:

Calotropis procera

English Names:

Dead Sea Apple, Milkweed, Sodom Apple, Swallow-Wort

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Alarka

A small, erect and compact shrub, covered with cottony tomentum.

The rootbark contains a- and ▀-amyrin, ▀-amyrin, taraxasterol and its y-isomer, taraxasteryl isovalerate, taraxasteryl acetate, gigantin, giganteol, isogiganteol, ▀-sitosterol and a wax.

In small doses, the rootbark is diaphoretic and expectorant. It acts as a mild stimulant.

Latin Name:

Capparis spinosa

English Name:

The Caper Bush

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Himsra

A prostrate shrub or climber armed with divaricate, light yellow thorns.

The root bark contains stachydrine, rutic acid and a volatile substance. It is bitter, aperient, diuretic and expectorant. It is given in splenic, renal and hepatic complaints.

Latin Name:

Capsicum annuum

English Name:

Chilli, Red Pepper

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Katuvira

A suffrutescent or herbaceous, short-lived perennial.

The active principle in chili is a mixture of allied components, capsaicin being the most important, major component (46-77% of the total capsainoids). Chili is a powerful irritant and rubefacient; when applied to the skin, it produces warmth, redness, and burning without blistering.

In the form of ointment of plasters, it is used externally for the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and neuralgia. Capsicum wool, prepared by dissolving the oleoresin in ether and pouring it on absorbent cotton-wool, is useful in rheumatoid affections. Chili, in small doses, is a powerful stimulant and carminative. It stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, and increases peristaltic movements and motility of the stomach. It is an excellent remedy in atonic and flatulent dyspepsia and dipsomania.

Latin Name:

Carica papaya

English Name:

Papaya

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Chirbhita, Erandachirbhita

Carica papaya (Papaya) is a small tree with straight and soft stem with leaf scars on it. The fruits are a good source of pection. It removes freckles and smoothes the skin.

Latin Name:

Carum carvi

English Name:

Caraway

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Karavi, Krishna jeeraka, Krishnajiraka

An annual or biennial glabrous herb.

Carvone and limonene are the chief constituents of the oil and its odor and flavor are mainly attributed to them. Other constituents present in the oil are: a- and ▀-pinenes and p-cymene.

In medicine, they are used as a carminative, mild stomachic, aromatic and diuretic. Both the seeds and the essential oil (caraway oil) are classed as carminative in the I.P. and prescribed in flatulent colic and stomach derangement.

In patients suffering from lumbago and rheumatism, exposing the affected parts to the vapors from the seeds gives relief from the disease. The alcoholic extract of the fruits shows dose-dependent antispasmodic effect. Caraway water finds use as a vehicle for pediatric medicines.

Latin Names:

Carum copticum, Trachyspermum ammi

English Names:

Bishop's Weed, Lovage

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Yavani, Yawani

An erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent branched annual, with aromatic fruits.

The characteristic odor and taste of the fruit is due to the presence of an essential oil. The fruits are much valued for its antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative properties. It is administered in flatulence, atonic dyspepsia and diarrhea, and often recommended for cholera. The oil from the fruits is reported to possess hypotensive and cardiac depressive activity. The drug also shows some anti-diuretic effect.

Latin Name:

Casearia esculenta

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Saptarangi

A shrub or a tree with a pale yellow bark.

The root and the root bark are extensively used in the indigenous system of medicine as an anti diabetic due to their hypoglycemic activity. The roots are especially efficacious in milder chronic diabetic cases. The root contains leucopelargonidin, arabinose, dulcitol. ▀-sitosterol and another sterol, and two resinous substances having hypoglycemic activity have also been reported.

Latin Name:

Cassia fistula / more info about Cassia fistula

English Name:

Indian Laburnum / more info about Indian Laburnum

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Aragvadha / more info about Aragvadha

Cassia fistula is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark.

The pulp contains sennosides A and B, Rhein and its glucoside, barbaloin, aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, their ethyl esters and oxalic acid. It is a safe purgative given even to pregnant women. The pulp is also given for biliousness and in disorders of the liver. It is applied in gout and rheumatism. It is utilized in blood-poisoning, anthrax and dysentery, also given in leprosy and diabetes and for the removal of abdominal obstructions.

It is used in the treatment of varicose veins. It helps in shrinking engorged veins and has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect.

Latin Name:

Cassia occidentalis / more info about Cassia occidentalis

English Name:

Negro Coffee / more info about Negro Coffee

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Kasamarda / more info about Kasamarda

Cassia occidentalis is a diffuse undershrub.

The plant contains emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, sitosterol and a xanthone-cassiolin. The seeds and leaves are used externally in skin diseases. The roots are reported to be diuretic, the seeds, roots and leaves are antibacterial. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion and other digestive disturbances in children.

Latin Names:

Cateria lacca, Laccifer lacca

English Name:

Lac insect

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Laksha

The most common and widely occurring species of lac insect in India is Laccifer lacca (Kerr) which produces the bulk of commercial lac.

Lac is the resinous protective secretion of the tiny lac insect. The major constituent of sticklac is the resin (70-80%); other constituents present are: sugar, proteins, and soluble salts, coloring matter, wax, sand, woody matter, insect bodies and other extraneous matter; a volatile oil is present in traces. Lac resin is composed of mainly hydroxy fatty acids of C14- C18 carbon chains, such as aleuritic, butolic, C14- C16 mono- and di-hydroxy acids along with hydroxy terpenic acids having the rare cedrene skeleton as jalaric, laccijalaric, shellolic, and laksholic acids.

Latin Name:

Cedrus deodara

English Name:

Himalayan Cedar

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Devadaru

It is a large evergreen tree. The bark is thick, furrowed vertically and cracked transversely.

It has anti-inflammatory activity and is used for its activity against human pathogenic Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Absidia ramosa and Microsporon gypsum. It has proven effective in a number of dermal diseases.

Latin Name:

Celastrus paniculatus

English Name:

Climbing Staff Tree

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Jyotishmati, Kanguni

A large, woody, climbing shrub with a yellow, corky bark.

The seeds possess emetic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and nervine properties and are used for sharpening the memory and also used to cure sores, ulcers, rheumatism and gout. The drug is used in the traditional system of medicine as a sedative. The reported constituents are Mal III A, Mal III B, triterpenoids zeylasterone, and seylasteral. Its therapeutic uses include treating anxiety and beriberi. Alcoholic extract has anti-inflammatory and sedative properties. An herbal extract of the crude drug was tested for its adaptogenic properties, on mice. It showed significant CNS depressant effect and a clear synergism with pentobarbital.

Latin Name:

Centella asiatica

English Names:

Indian Pennywort, Gotu Kola

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Mandukaparni

Centella asiatica is a prostrate, stoloniferous, perennial weed found in crop fields.

It includes the glycosides indocentelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside, asiaticoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. In ayurveda, the plant is used for the treatment of leprosy and skin diseases and also to improve memory, as an antidote to cholera, and in bronchitis, asthma, gastric trouble, catarrh, leucorrhea, kidney troubles, urethritis and dropsy. The plant also has tranquilizing, anabolic, antiprotozoal and spasmolytic properties.

It helps to improve memory, increases concentration and intellectual ability in children.

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Chyavanaprasha concentrate

It consists of the following ingredients:

Aegle marmelos, Clerodendrum phlomidis, Oroxylum indicum, Gmelina arborea, Stereospermum chelonoides, Sida cordifolia, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, Phaseolus trilobus, Teramnus labialis, Piper longum, Tribulus terrestris, Solanum indicum, Solanum xanthocarpum, Pistacia integerrima, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitis vinifera, Leptadenia reticulata, Inula racemosa, Aquilaria malaccensis, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Dioscorea bulbifera, Microstylis muscifera, Microstylis wallichi, Hedychium spicatum, Cyperus rotundus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Polygonatum cirrihfolium, Elettaria cardamomum, Santalum album, Nymphaea stellata, Pueraria tuberosa, Adhatoda vasica, Lilium polyphyllum, Pentatropsis capensis, Emblica officinalis.

It is a rejuvenative, geriatric and cardiac tonic, which is useful in the treatment of cough, asthma and debility.

Latin Name:

Cicer arietinum

English Names:

Bengal Gram, Chickpea

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Chanaka

An erect or spreading much-branched annual herb, covered all over with glandular hair, extensively cultivated.

Whole gram contains saccharose, glucose, fructose, polysaccharides including starch, g-galactan, levulose and p -galactoaraban, betaine, choline, adenine, inositol, phytin, saponin and citric and oxalic acids. The fresh whole germ of sprouting gram contains biochanin A, biochanin B and biochanin C. The isoflavones, biochanin A and formononetin are reported to be estrogenic and also show hypolipidemic activity.

Gram is a potent hypocholesterolemic agent. The anti-stress, anti-hyperlipidemic and stamina building activity of gram may be due to the presence of pangamic acid and a free nucleotide. It is a stimulant, tonic, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, and useful in bronchitis and biliousness. It is also useful in leprosy and other skin diseases. The powdered seed is used for dandruff and also used as a face pack.

Latin Name:

Cichorium intybus

English Name:

Chicory

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Kasani

Cichorium intybus is an erect perennial herb.

The root contains tannin phlobaphenes and reducing sugars. The seeds have carminative and cordial properties and are useful as a brain tonic and for headache, asthma and bilious vomiting.

It is an acclaimed hepatoprotective, and, is used in hepatic enlargement, fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. It has cholagogue and anti-inflammatory properties.

 

Latin Name:

Cinnamomum camphora

English Name:

Camphor

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Karpoora

A large, handsome, evergreen cultivated in India as an ornamental and as a source of camphor.

Camphor is obtained as colorless or white crystals, granules or crystalline masses, or colorless to white translucent, tough masses. Camphor acts as a carminative, reflex expectorant and reflex stimulant of the heart, circulation and respiration. Camphor has also been used as a nervine depressant in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and convulsions and as an aphrodisiac. The oil extract has a peculiar fragrance and acts as an skin stimulant and counter irritant when applied externally.

Latin Name:

Cinnamomum cassia

English Names:

Cassia, Chinese Cinnamon

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Sthula tvak

An evergreen aromatic tree with a grey, smooth, thick bark which yields an oil containing cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol.

Chinese Cassia has been used as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and analgesic. It is used as a carminative, purgative and astringent. It is also useful as a cardiac stimulant, refrigerant, and diuretic, for stimulation of liver functions, in neuralgia, uterine pains, ascites and edema.

Latin Names:

Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum

English Name:

Cinnamon

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Thwak

A moderate sized tree, native to Sri Lanka and cultivated in South India for its aromatic bark.

The bark contains a significant amount of a mucilaginous substance, which consists mainly of a water extractable L-arabino-D-xylan and an alkali-extractable D-glucan. The bark also contains the diterpenes, cinnzeylanin and cinnzeylanol besides tannin.

The bark is used to a limited extent in medicine. It is aromatic, astringent, stimulant, expectorant and carminative. It possesses the property of checking nausea and vomiting. As a stimulant it is beneficial in cramps of the stomach, gastric irritation, and paralysis of the tongue. Ground cinnamon shows lipolytic activity. It is useful in diarrhea and dysentery. Externally, the bark is used in neuralgia, rheumatism and toothache. A decoction of the bark is reported to be used for cancer of the stomach, rectum and uterus.

It is a good anti-infective agent and is useful in relieving cough due to its soothing action.

 

Latin Name:

Citrus grandis

English Names:

Forbidden Fruit, Pummelo, Shaddock

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Mahanimbu

A spreading, round-topped almost thornless tree.

The rootbark contains ▀-sitosterol and the following acridone alkaloids: citpressine-I and II, citracridone- I and II, glycocitrine-I, grandisine-I and II, grandisinine, 5-hydroxynoracronycine, honyumine and natsucitrine-II.

The fruit is considered to be nutritive and refrigerant. It is a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamin C, which have an effective antioxidant action. The seeds have similar properties and are sometimes given for lumbago.

Latin Name:

Citrus limon

English Name:

Lemon

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Nimbaka

A spinescent tree up to 6 m in height.

The juice is a rich source of vitamin C. It protects the skin from oxidative damage and helps in preventing pruritus. Lemon peel is stomachic and carminative. Oil of lemon is stimulant and rubefacient when applied externally.

Lemon juice is one of the best remedies for scurvy and serves as a refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory affections, acute rheumatism, dysentery and diarrhea. The juice diluted with water is used as a collyrium. The juice also possesses bactericidal and astringent properties. Lemon peel is used in cosmetics, as a hair-rinse and mouth-freshener. It possesses insect repellant property.

Latin Name:

Citrus medica

English Name:

Citron

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Bara nimbu, Bijapura, Turanj

It is a small shrub or tree with thorny branches and lemon yellow colored oblong fruits. The fruit juice is refrigerant and astringent. The fruits have potent anti-scorbutic activity.

Latin Name:

Citrus reticulata

English Names:

Loose skinned or Loose Jacket Orange, Mandarin Orange

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Narangi

It is a small spiny tree with slender branches widely grown in India. The fruit rind and segments are easily separable. The fruit oil is reported to have limonene. It is used traditionally as a sun cream.

Latin Name:

Cocos nucifera

English Name:

Coconut

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Narikela

A tall and stately palm, bearing a crown of large, pinnate leaves.

The oil extract is a good emollient, can be used externally for softening the lips and in various cosmetics. It is used in uterine diseases and a polysaccharide factor in the plant is immunomodulator.

Latin Name:

Coleus vettiveroides

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Hrivera

It is a small and succulent herb, with pubescent leaves and fibrous roots, which are strongly aromatic. It has anti-bacterial, deodrant and cooling properties.

Latin Names:

Commiphora wightii, Balsamodendron mukul

English Name:

Indian Bedellium

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Guggulu

It is a small tree or shrub with spinescent branches.

Its gum resin has astringent, antiseptic and antisuppurative properties and is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. It is excreted by the mucous membranes of the body, in the course of which it stimulates and disinfects their secretions. It also contains guggulsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I - V, two diterperoids-a terpene hydrocarbon named cembrane A.

It is used against obesity. Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic and assists in burning excess body fat.

Latin Names:

Convolvulus microphyllus, C.pluricaulis

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Shankhapushpi

An herb found in the plains of north India.

The plant contains the alkaloids convolvine, convolamine, phyllabine, convolidine, confoline, convoline, subhirsine, convosine, and convolvidine along with scopoline and ▀-sitosterol. Besides, high-density lipoprotein was significantly raised in the animals.

The plant is reported to be a memory-improving drug. It is used as a psycho-stimulant and tranquilizer.

Latin Name:

Coriandrum sativum

English Name:

Coriander

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Dhanyaka, Kustumburi

An annual herb, with small, white or pinkish purple flowers borne on compound terminal umbels.

The aromatic odor and taste of coriander fruits is due to an essential oil. The chief constituent of the oil is coriandrol. The fruits are considered anti-microbial, astringent, carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant and aphrodisiac.

An infusion of the seeds is useful in flatulence, indigestion, vomiting and other intestinal disorders; it is also used in bleeding piles, rheumatism, neuralgia, caphalagia, and locally, in eye-infection. The dried seeds are reported to possess diuretic and aphrodisiac properties.

 

Latin Names:

Crataeva nurvala, C. magna

English Name:

Three Leaved Caper

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Varuna

It is a medium sized deciduous tree found throughout India, especially along the river banks.

It has anti-inflammatory, diuretic, lithontriptic, demulcent and tonic properties. Bark yields ceryl alcohol, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic acid and diosgenin.

It is useful in disorders of urinary organs, urinary tract infections, pain and burning micturition, renal and vesical calculi.

Latin Name:

Crocus sativus

English Name:

Saffron

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Kumkuma

Crocus sativus is a small bulbous perennial herb. It is valued for its famed condiment, saffron, constituted by the stigma and style of the flower.

It contains the glycosides crocin and picocrocin together with lycopene, b-carotene, g-carotene and zeaxanthin. It is rich in riboflavine and also contains thiamine. Saffron is used as a nervine sedative and emmenogogue and in fevers, melancholia and enlargement of the liver. It also has stimulant and stomachic properties.

It has an essential oil, the active ingredient of which is aphrodisiac in nature. The mechanism of its sex-stimulating activity is effected by a slight stimulation of the central nervous system.

Latin Name:

Cucumis sativus

English Name:

Cucumber

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Trapusha, Sukasa

A trailing or climbing annual, bearing elongated, thick, cylindrical fruits of varying sizes and forms.

The aerial parts of the plant contain a 14a-methyl D-phytosterol. Shikimate dehydrogenase is extracted from cucumber pulp. It helps to keep the facial skin soft, has healing and soothing effect on the damaged skin and exerts a natural sunscreen. It acts as a toner and lightens the facial skin. The seeds are reported to be cooling, tonic and diuretic. The seed kernel (forming 75% of the seeds) is edible and used in confectionery.

Latin Name:

Cuminum cyminum

English Name:

Cumin

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Jeeraka, Svetajiraka

A small, slender annual herb, with a much-branched angular or striated stem, bearing 2 or 3 partite linear leaves, bluish green in color and having sheathing bases.

The chief constituent of the volatile oil is cumaldehyde. In indigenous medicine, cumin seeds have long been considered stimulant and carminative. They are stomachic, astringent and useful in diarrhea and dyspepsia; improves appetite and taste. They are now chiefly used in Veterinary medicine. The seeds showed antifertility and abortifacient activity in female rats. They have been credited with aphrodisiac properties.

Latin Name:

Curcuma longa

English Name:

Turmeric

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Haridra, Nisha, Rajani

Curcuma longa is a perennial herb, with tufted leaves and a short and thick rhizome that constitutes the turmeric of commerce.

It's principal constituent is Curcumin, which is a diferuloyl methane. In Indian systems of medicine, turmeric is used to some extent as a stomachic, tonic and blood purifier. It is also prescribed as an antiperiodic alterative. Externally, it is applied to indolent ulcers. A decoction of the rhizome is said to relieve the pain of purulent ophthalmia.

Oil of turmeric, distilled from the dried rhizomes, has feeble antiseptic properties. It is an antacid, and, in small doses, acts as a carminative, stomachic, appetizer and tonic. In large doses, however, it appears to act as an antispasmodic inhibiting excessive peristaltic movements of the intestines. Turmeric also possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

Latin Name:

Curcuma zedoaria

English Name:

Zedoary

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Shati

It is a native of northeast India, found in deciduous forests and closely resembles Curcuma longa in appearance but has a large sized tuberous rootstock.

Its taste and odor resembles Zingiber officinale, but with a fainter aroma. Curzerenone and zederone are the main components of the essential oil. In indigenous medicine, it is prescribed as a stomachic. It has a local effect on the digestive organs and has been employed as a gastrointestinal stimulant in flatulent colic. It also prevents stress ulceration.

Latin Name:

Cynodon dactylon

English Names:

Dhub Grass, Bermuda Grass, Bahama Grass

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Durva

A hardy perennial grass with creeping culms.

A decoction of the plant is diuretic, and considered useful in dropsy and anasarca. The expressed juice is astringent, and is applied to bleeding cuts and wounds. The rhizomes and roots are used as adulterants and substitutes for couch grass (Agropyron repens Beauv.) rhizomes that are used in genitourinary disorders (B.P.C., 77; U.S.D., 1242).

Latin Name:

Cyperus rotundus

English Name:

Nut Grass

Sanskrit / Indian Name:

Musta

A perennial weed with dark green glabrous culms, arising from a system of underground tubers.

The tubers contain an essential oil. The tubers are diaphoretic and astringent. They are also credited with diuretic, antihelmentic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, stomachic, emmenagogue and stimulant properties.

Latin Name:

Cyperus scariosus

English Name:

Umbrella's Edge

Sanskrit / Indian Names:

Bhadramusta, Nagaramustaka

Cyperus scarious is a delicate, slender small herb with deep brown aromatic tubers.

The tubers are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, desiccant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for washing hair, treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness.

 

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