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Ayurvedic Herbs / Thai Herbs - Medicinal Plants - A

Ayurvedic Herbs A-Z

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Ayurvedic Medicine

Basics

There are numerous medicinal plants in current use in Thailand. Ayurvedic medicine and Thai traditional medicine, each finding many uses and deserving to be exhibited to the enthusiasts who wish to know about the characteristics of its stem, flower, fruit together with the research work undertaken, it is impossible to exhibit all, or even the majority, of them. For this reason some common medicinal plants which received research attention both locally and internationally have been selected. In addition, some which have so far attracted little attention from researchers have also been included owing to their recognition in Ayurvedic Medicine and traditional medicine in Thailand as well as some Asian countries.

The information has been searched from the literature, selected and edited in order to be presented in this site, which will familiarize the reader with general characters of such plants. No botanical details are given owing to the nature of this work and also to limited space. Sketches of the plants, however, are given to enable the reader to recognize them. It should be noted that all Thai, Sanskrit, Latin and English common names of the plants appearing in this site are transliterated into English with the sound in mind, and not according to the official rules. In addition, owing to the limited space the traditional usage of each plant is meant to be representative, and by no means comprehensive.

Ayurveda Herbs - Thai Herbs Common Name   A
  • Aarons Rod
  • Absinthe
  • Absinthium
  • acanthopanax
  • Achuvagandi
  • Aconite
  • Ada
  • Addre's mouth
  • Ademetionine
  • Adharajhada 
  • Adosa
  • Adrak
  • Africa pepper
  • African ginger
  • African red pepper
  • Aghada
  • Aghata
  • Agnus Castus
  • Agnus-castus
  • Agrimony
  • Ague tree
  • Agueweed
  • Aka
  • Akado
  • Akanda 
  • Akarakara
  • Akarkara
  • Akda
  • Akebia
  • Akkalkara
  • Akkarakaram
  • Akkirakaram
  • Akra 
  • Ala
  • Alarka
  • Alder buckthorn
  • Alder Buckthorn
  • Alder dogwood
  • Alen
  • Aligator Yam
  • Alfalfa
  • Alisma
  • Alkanet, Bugloss
  • Allam
  • All heal
  • All-heal
  • Almond
  • Aloe
  • Aloe Vera
  • Althea
  • Alumroot
  • Amalaki
  • Amaranth
  • Amber
  • Ambli
  • Ambul
  • Ambal
  • Ambala
  • Ambrette Plant
  • American bayberry
  • American beech
  • American Cranesbill
  • American English valerian

 

  • American ephedra
  • American Ginseng
  • American Mistletoe
  • American nightshade
  • American Pennyroyal
  • American pepper
  • American Poplar
  • American red pepper
  • American saffron
  • American saffron
  • American sanicle
  • American senna
  • American skullcap
  • American sloe
  • American vegetable tallow tree
  • American vegetable wax
  • American vervain
  • Aml parni
  • Amala
  • Amalakam
  • Amalakamu
  • Amalaki
  • Amial
  • Amikkira-gadday
  • Amkulang-kalang
  • Amla
  • Amlaj
  • Amlabaum
  • Amla-vetasa
  • Amlika
  • Amlika
  • Amluki
  • Amraphalam
  • Amrita
  • Amrul
  • Amukkira-kilzhangu
  • Amukran-kizhangu
  • Amuleh
  • Anemarrhena
  • Anganapriya
  • Angelica
  • Angelica du huo
  • Anise
  • Aniseed
  • Anthemis
  • Antisha
  • Anvurah
  • Aonla
  • Aoula
  • Apamara
  • Apamarga
  • Apamargamu
  • Apang
  • Apricot seed
  • Aquarqarha
  • Arberry
  • Arberry
  • Arbre-a-Soie
  • Archu

 

  • Ardrakam
  • Arisaema rhizome
  • Aristolochia root
  • Arjun
  • Arjuna
  • Arjuna Myrobalan
  • Arjuna-sadra
  • Arka
  • Arkamu
  • Arnica
  • Aromatic wintergreen
  • Arrowwood
  • Arrowwood
  • Artemisia annua
  • Asafetida
  • Asafoetida
  • Asagandha, 
  • Asana 
  • Asclepias
  • Asgandh
  • Ashgandh
  • Ashoka Tree
  • Ashwagandha
  • Asian Ginseng
  • Asiatic ginseng
  • Asogam
  • Asokada
  • Ashopalava
  • Asok
  • Asoka
  • Asoka Tree
  • Assafoetida
  • Asthma weed
  • Astragalus
  • Asula
  • Asundha
  • Asupala
  • Asvagandhi
  • Ataicha
  • Atis
  • Atavasa
  • Ateicha
  • Athivisha
  • Atibala
  • Athiballached
  • Atirasa
  • Ativadayam
  • Ativasu
  • Ativisha
  • Atkumah
  • Atmagupta
  • Attumarutu
  • Autumn crocus
  • Autumn Crocus
  • Ava
  • Ava Pepper
  • Avalkati
  • Avla
  • Awa

 

Ayurvedic Herbs English Name   A

 

Ayurvedic Herbs Latin/Scientific Name  A

 

Ayurvedic Herbs Sanskrit Name  A

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Abhrak bhasma

English Names :

Powdered Talc, Biotite Calx

 

 

It is prepared by treating biotite (mica) with the juices of a number of reconstituent plants that make it a powerful cellular regenerator. It is a nervine tonic and is also widely used in respiratory tract infections, and anemia. It contains iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium and aluminum in traces.

 

Latin Names :

Abelmoschus moschatus / Hibiscus abelmoschus

English Name :

Musk Mallow

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Latakasthuri

 

 

Abelmoschus moschatusIt is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute herb. The fatty oil of the seeds contain phospholipids-a-cephalin, and phosphatidylserine. The seeds are antiseptic, stomachic, tonic, carminative and aphrodisiac.

It is used in the treatment of male sexual disorders and venereal diseases.

 

Latin Name :

Abutilon indicum

English Name :

Country Mallow

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Atibala

 

 

Abutilon indicumA softly tomentose herb or shrub, with yellow or orange-yellow flowers.

The plant is reported to contain fructose, galactose, glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and galacturonic acid. The drug is used as a febrifuge, has antihelmentic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and is useful in urinary and uterine discharges, piles and lumbago.

 

Latin Name :

Acacia catechu

English Name :

Cutch Tree

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Khadira

 

 

Acacia catechuA moderate sized tree with feathery crown, pinnate leaves and a pair of recurved prickles at the base of the rachis. Catechin and catechutannic acid are the major active constituents in the wood extract. Taxifolin, another constituent has antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of cough and sore throat.

 

Latin Names :

Acacia nilotica / A.arabica

English Name :

Indian Gum-Arabic Tree

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Babbula, Babool

 

 

Acacia niloticaA moderate-sized, almost evergreen tree with a short trunk, a spreading crown and feathery foliage.

The bark from the branches yield 7-12 per cent tannin and is used for asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, dysentery, diarrhea and skin diseases.

The stem is used as a toothbrush and the gum for burns. The leaves are useful for eye complaints, headache, throat infection, urinary problems and gonorrhea.

 

 

Latin Names :

Acacia sinuata / A.concinna

English Name :

Soap Nut

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Saptala

 

 

A common, prickly, scandent shrub. The pods yield saponins (20.8%) which have been reported to contain acacinin-C, -D and -E and a homologous series of oligosaccharides. An ointment prepared from the ground pods is good for skin diseases. A decoction of the pods relieves biliousness and acts as a purgative. It is used to remove dandruff and has a detangling effect on the hair, which helps in increasing the hair volume.

The pods, known as Shikai or Shikakai, are extensively used as a detergent, and the dry ones are powdered and perfumed, and sold in the market as soap nut powder.

 

Latin Name :

Achillea millefolium

English Name :

Yarrow

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Biranjasipha

 

 

Achillea millefoliumAchillea millefolium is a perennial herb that contains the alkaloid achilline, and also yields an essential oil, Espirt d' Iva. The herb possesses diaphoretic, vulnerary, styphic, astringent, emmenogogue, stimulant, tonic and anti-hemorrhoidal properties.

It is useful in influenza and heavy chest colds and also as a blood-purifier. It has carminative, digestive, astringent and anti-spasmodic properties. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, colic and heartburn. A decoction of the herb is said to give significant relief in chronic colic. It is also used in various hepatic disorders.

 

Latin Name :

Achyranthes aspera

English Name :

Prickly-Chaff Flower

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Apamarga

 

 

Achyranthes asperaAn erect or procumbent, annual or perennial herb, often with a woody base.

The whole plant contains the alkaloids achyranthine and betaine. The plant is much valued in indigenous medicine. It is reported to be pungent, astringent, pectoral and diuretic. It is used as an emmenagogue, and in piles and skin eruptions.

 

Latin Names :

Aconitum bisma / A.palmatum

English Name :

Crowfoot

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Prativisha

 

 

Aconitum bismaA biennial herb, with a tuberous and paired root.

The roots contain five diterpene alkaloids, viz. palmatisine, vakognavine, vakatisine, vakatisinine and vakati. The root is intensely bitter and is used in combination with long pepper for pain in bowels, diarrhea, and vomiting.

 

 

Latin Name :

Acorus calamus

English Name :

Sweet Flag

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Vacha

 

 

Acorus calamusAcorus calamus is a semi-aquatic herb with creeping rhizomes.

The dried rhizomes constitute the drug Calamus of commerce. The rhizomes, roots and leaves yield a light brownish yellow volatile oil called calamus oil. The important constituents of Indian calamus oil are asarone and its b-isomer.

The rhizomes are considered to possess sedative and analgesic properties. They are used for the treatment of epilepsy, chronic diarrhea and dysentery, bronchial catarrh, fever, glandular and abdominal tumors, kidney and liver complaints, rheumatism and eczema.

It has been used in indigenous systems of medicine (eg. Ayurveda) to improve memory retention and recall. A combination of B. monnieri and A. calamus significantly increases memory and controls hyperactivity in children.

 

Latin Names :

Adhatoda zeylanica / A.vasica

English Names :

Malabar Nut, Vasaka

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Shwetavasa, Vasa, Vasaka

 

 

Adhatoda zeylanicaAdhatoda zeylanica is an evergreen, gregarious, stiff perennial shrub.

Its principal constituents are the several alkaloids which are present in the drug and its chief principal is a quinazoline alkaloid, vasicine. The leaves are rich in Vitamin C and carotene and yield an essential oil. The shrub is the source of the drug, vasaka, well known in indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis. The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating cold, cough, whooping-cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. It acts as a sedative-expectorant, antispasmodic and antihelmentic. The leaf-juice is stated to cure diarrhea, dysentery and glandular tumor, and, is given as an emmenagogue. The powder is reported to be used as a poultice on rheumatic joints, as a counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia.

It has strong coagulant action which is very useful to minimize blood loss and also possesses uterine stimulant activity and acts as uterotonic. It also useful for the control of postpartum hemorrhage.

 

Latin Name :

Aegle marmelos

English Name :

Bael Tree

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Bilva

 

 

Aegle marmelosAegle marmelos is a moderate-sized, slender, aromatic tree, with straight, sharp spines in the branches.

It is a fruit used in diarrhea, dysentery and cholera due to its digestive and carminative properties. Both ripe and unripe fruit are regarded as an astringent. It helps in the healing of ulcerated intestinal surfaces. It possesses antiviral, antihelmentic, and anti-inflammatory properties and has appreciable activity against Vibrio cholera and Salmonella.

 

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Akik pishti

English Name :

Processed Agate

 

 

A cardiac tonic ľ it allays palpitation of the heart.

 

Latin Name :

Allium sativum

English Name :

Garlic

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Lasuna

 

 

Allium sativumThe volatile oil contains allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate), an active odorous principle in Garlic.

The extracts of Allium sativum bulb and compound preparation possess pharmacodynamic properties. The extract of garlic was found to have a significant protective action against a fat induced increase in serum cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen and in fibrinolytic activity.

 

Latin Names :

Aloe barbadensis / Aloe vera

English Names :

Indian Aloe, Barbados Aloe

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Ghrita-kumari, Kanya, Kumari

 

 

Aloe barbadensisAloe barbadensis is a coarse-looking perennial plant with a short stem, erect, with crowded leaves that has spiny teeth on the margins.

It contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients which exhibit antibacterial and antifungal action. It also has a natural sunscreen effect that moisturizes the skin. Its principal constituents are the leaves that contain barbaloin, chrysophanol glycoside and the aglycone, aloe-emodin. The leaf juice forms the main source of the drug. Aloes have long been in use for a host of diseases, particularly those connected with the digestive system; they have also been used for wounds, burns, dermatitis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and other skin troubles. It is used in eye troubles, spleen and liver ailments.

Kumari is also known to relieve dysmenorrhea in young women by expelling uterine debris.

 

Latin Name :

Alpinia galanga

English Name :

Greater Galangal

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Rasna, Mahabharivacha

 

 

Alpinia galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and is useful in rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis.

It contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients, which exhibit antibacterial effect and acts against streptococci, staphylococci and coliform bacteria.

 

Latin Names :

Alternanthera sessilis / A.triandra / A.denticulata / A.nodiflora / A.repens

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Matsyakshi

 

 

Alternanthera sessilisIt is an annual or perennial prostrate herb, found throughout hotter parts of India. It is rich in b-Carotene. It shows antibacterial and anti-fungal activities.

 

Latin Name :

Amomum subulatum

English Names :

Larger or Greater Cardamom, Nepal Cardamom

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Aindri, Sthula ela, Brihatupakunchika

 

 

Amomum subulatumA tall, perennial herb, with leafy stems.

The seeds contain the glycosides, petunidin 3,5-diglucoside and leucocyanidin-3-O-▀-D-glucopyranoside, and a new aurone glycoside, subulin. The seeds on steam distillation yield a dark brown, mobile essential oil (2.5%) having the characteristic odor of cineol.

Medicinally, the seeds are credited with stimulant, stomachic, alexipharmic and astringent properties, and are prescribed for the treatment of indigestion, vomiting, biliousness, abdominal pains and rectal diseases. The oil from the seeds is aromatic, stimulant, anti-inflammatory and it is highly active against growth of keratinophilic fungi.

 

Latin Name :

Anacyclus pyrethrum

English Name :

Spanish Pellitory

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Akarakarabha

 

 

Anacyclus pyrethrumA perennial, procumbent herb, the roots of which are used in medicine.

They contain anacyclin, pellitorine, enetriyne alcohol, hydrocarolin, inulin, traces of volatile oil and -sesamin. The roots possess stimulant and rubifacient properties.

 

Latin Name :

Andrographis paniculata

English Name :

The Creat

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Bhunimba, Yavatikta, Kalamegha

 

 

Andrographis paniculataIt is an erect herb with quadrangular (young) stem, opposite, decussate leaves and white flowers in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes. Andrographolide is one of the active constituents isolated from the plant. It is a bitter tonic and febrifuge. A decoction of the plant is a blood-purifier. It is used as a cure for torpid liver, and jaundice. It also has hepatoprotective activity.

 

Latin Names :

Anethum sowa / A.graveolens

English Name :

Indian Dill

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Satahva, Madhura

 

 

Anethum sowaAn annual, glabrous, aromatic herb.

The dried ripe fruits yield, on distillation, an essential oil. The major constituent of the oil is carvone. It also contains apiol and dill apioll. They are used in medicine mainly as an aromatic carminative, antipyretic and antihelmentic. The oil from the seeds is a well-known remedy for flatulence in children and enters into the preparation of gripe water. The seeds are used as stomachic and the aqueous extract of the seeds showed abortifacient activity in rats.

 

Latin Name :

Apium graveolens

English Name :

Celery

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Ajamoda

 

 

Apium graveolensIt is an annual or biennial herb, native of Europe, now naturalized in northern parts of India and largely cultivated in Punjab.

It has antispasmodic, digestive and carminative properties. It is useful in indigestion, abdominal discomfort, colic and hepatobiliary disorders.

 

Latin Name :

Areca catechu

English Name :

Arecanut Palm

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Puga

 

 

Areca catechuA tree with annulate stem surmounted by a crown of pinnate leaves.

Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to the pyridine group. The most important of them physiologically is arecoline The polyphenols of ripe arecanut contain predominantly polymerized leucocyanidins besides as well as small amounts of (+)-cetechin, leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin. The polyphenolic substances of arecanuts, generally termed tannins, are responsible for the physiological action. The non-alkaloid fractions of arecanuts are reported to possess anti-microbial properties. The powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhea and urinary disorders.

In Sri Lanka, the unripe nuts are credited with laxative properties, but they are said to affect the eyesight. Arecanuts are considered useful as an external application on ulcers, and in skin disorders. They are antihelmentic, and are used in Veterinary medicine as a vermifuge. A paste of the dry arecanut powder is used as a dentifrice. The dried nuts are said to sweeten the breath, strengthen the gums, and produce a stimulant and exhilarant effect on the system. Arecanut chewed is reportedly a good source of fluoride.

 

Latin Names :

Argyreia nervosa / A.speciosa

English Name :

Elephant Creeper

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Vriddadaru

 

 

Argyreia nervosaA woody climber with a stout stem and rose purple flowers.

The root is bitter, aphrodisiac, diuretic, and is used in gonorrhea, rheumatism and diseases of the nervous system. It is also used as a tonic. The plant is used along with other ingredients to cure sexual disorders in males.

 

Latin Name :

Arundo donax

English Names :

Giant Reed / Wild Cane

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Nala

 

 

Nala, is a tall perennial grass that can grow up to 20 feet high. The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, and galactagogue.

 

Latin Name :

Asparagus adscendens

English Name :

Asparagus

Sanskrit / Indian Names :

Shreta musli, Sufed musli

 

 

Asparagus adscendensA sub-erect, prickly shrub with white tuberous roots.

The roots are prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery. The saponin mixture from the dried roots yield glycosides, O-[▀-D-2-tetracosylxylophyranosyl]-stigmasterol, and 3-▀-O-[▀-D-Glycopyranosyl (12)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl] stigmasterol.

 

Latin Name :

Asparagus racemosus

English Name :

Asparagus

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Shatavari

 

 

Asparagus racemosusA much-branched, spinous under-shrub, with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent, tuberous roots. The plant contains triterpene saponins - Shatavarin I - IV, which are phytoestrogen compounds.

The plant is used as a demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and galactagogue. The root extracts exhibit antiallergic activity. Along with the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, they are given to diabetic patients.

 

Latin Names :

Azadirachta indica / Melia azadirachta

English Name :

Neem

Sanskrit / Indian Name :

Nimba

 

 

Azadirachta indicaAzadirachta indica is a large, evergreen tree. Its principal constituents are nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidin. All parts of the plant yield b-sitosterol.

Neem extracts possess anti-diabetic, antibacterial and anti-viral properties. The tree stem, root and bark possess astringent, tonic and anti-periodic properties. The bark is beneficial in malarial fever and useful in cutaneous diseases.

It is used for external applications in skin diseases. It possesses anti-dandruff, antibacterial, anti viral and fungicidal properties.


 

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